private pilot ground school Articles | Index    

Aborted Takeoff
2010-03-18

Aborted Takeoff

(once is enough)
It is all too common to have a seat slide back during initial takeoff acceleration. For this reason the seat security should be part of the takeoff checklist as well as doors and windows. Have the student accelerate for take off and pull the power off just before lift off. Do not apply the heavy braking that might be required in a real situation because of possible damage to the nose gear or tires. The idea of rejecting the takeoff with a resulting accident off the end of the runway is not pleasant. Running off the end of the runway while decelerating is better than colliding with the ground after becoming airborne.

Training works provided you remember to carry the lessons learned into the situation. The takeoff is one of the highest risk phases of flight. Time is not, necessarily in your favor, at 60 knots you are going 100 yards (a football field) every three seconds. At 80 knots 200 yards in five seconds. Regardless of the runway, you should pre-decide an abort point for every takeoff. Beyond that abort point you are committed to takeoff. Due to potential hazards the aborted takeoff is best not practiced to excessive limits. Simulate but doing the real thing can be dangerous or hard on the aircraft. Once airborne the reason for aborting becomes even more complex and dangerous. Quick thinking and analysis is needed prior to liftoff. Hitting something while skidding off the runway can be far less damaging than going into an off-airport area. Use 150% of the POH landing roll distance for your required abort/stop distance.

The sooner the abort decision is made the more chance of success. On a short runway abort before lift off. Heavy braking is hard on the aircraft but it will probably be required in an aborted take off. If you have full power you may be better off not to abort. Abort problems often occur when there is a conflict of authority. If airborne, continue if door pops open. Return to land and close door. In the event of fire or smoke be prepared to evacuate.

Takeoffs are successful so often that we fail to prepare for the one failure. In fact, we will never be fully prepared for rejecting the takeoff unless we learn what to do before it happens. We must pre-decide what aircraft performance we will require over the distance remaining. We must relate what we have commonly experienced in acceleration and speed with what is occurring at a given moment. If the performance is not there, we must immediately pull the power and mixture, apply brakes up to the point of a skid but not into the skid. We must maintain a straight line with the yoke pulled all the way back to give maximum weight to the main wheels.

The aborted takeoff, often called the RTO or rejected takeoff, is a not too common occurrence. It can occur because of a seat sliding back, a clearance, a door opening, etc. Airlines have RTO (rejected take off) 1 out of 2000 takeoffs more often because of indications of failures rather than actual failures. You must make a book determination that the runway is adequate for the aircraft and conditions. A conservative 2.2 x book figures is a good risk management margin for takeoff. A 10 kt tailwind will double the book figures without any margin. If you are half way down the available runway and performance is not as expected, abort. Some abortions occur because the pilot has not correctly anticipated how density altitude and changing wind conditions along the runway. Winds can and do vary along the length of a runway.

If you can reduce your speed by half before impact with an object you will decrease your force of impact by 75%. Hit any objects while turning with the wing or tail to utilize the ability of collapsible material to absorb impact. Your survival is more important than the insured condition of the aircraft. At impact be sure electrical system is off.

An aborted takeoff due to engine failure should include immediate power reduction, mixture to idle/cutoff, and heavy braking on runway heading with a ground loop as required to avoid obstruction impact. Any engine failure after takeoff should be followed by setting nose glide angle and trimming (3 additional full turns from climb trim) for best glide. Select the best available within 60 degrees of heading and wind direction. Pull throttle and mixture to full off since numerous fatal accidents have been caused by sudden and unanticipated power resumption. Shut off the fuel. Avoid obstacles and use full flaps prior to ground contact at minimum speed. Turn off electric master when flaps are down. Unlatch doors.

At some later point in the training a no-airspeed-indicator takeoff should be made. The student will be required to visualize the nose attitude that gives a desirable airspeed. Requiring visualization is good for the student because they must have in their mind a picture of what they are doing. With the airspeed and perhaps other instruments covered makes the student feel and hear aircraft performance.

Comment

 
 External Links
 Recent articles
Important Side Notes
ol li The Law of Firsts Haviland #39;s quot;The first time you do you shouldn #39;t have...

The Last Thing You Learn
P If you make a good landing the yoke should be positioned for taxiing When you turn off the runway the correct positioning of the yoke will...

Pilot in Command Time
There are five different ways to get logable pilot in command PIC time according to FAR 61 51 c 2 BR BR ...

Planned Instruction
The military is a leading exponent of programmed instruction Under such a program every thing in the future is based upon the building blocks...

The Practical Test
Determines if applicant has had required instruction BR Determines if applicant can safely perform required tasks BR BR The practical test is a two...

Illusions - Natural Illusions
P B Rain B BR Rain gives the illusion of being higher than you actually are Combined with haze you will fly...

Airworthiness Directives (ADs)
P FAR 91 403 a requires that an AD compliance record be kept Some AD are one time and others recurring They notify aircraft owners...

Self-Doubt is Normal
P Every so often the instructor finds a student who is going through a phase of flying that is very disturbing to the student A student may...

Introduction to The Radio
P I introduce the ATIS frequency 124 7 the alphabetical sequencing order of information during the day and how to use this information ...

Measures
As pilots we are generally unaware and or uneducated as to the debt that aviation owes to those scientists and mathematicians who preceded the Wright brothers...

Preparation
The success of the instructional program is directly related to the willingness of the student to study and prepare It takes a minimum of two hours of study for every...

Areas of Required Knowledge
Required logbook endorsements with date and time BR BR Preflight BR Flight Procedures BR Aircraft Performance BR Radio...

Calming Flying Anxiety
P Anxiety is generalized fear Your body prepares you to run fight or act to protect yourself Your heart and blood pressure rise blood...

Learning From Your Mistakes
P A mistake is painful because we have been conditioned to experience humiliation and shame We expect ourselves to be able to perform When we don...

Private Pilot Endorsements
An instructorÝs endorsement indicates that he feels you have been instructed in and are competent to perform a given maneuver At that time Your logbook is a legal document...

The Risks of Flying
Most flying decisions are easy if the decision is based upon safety Being safe does not mean without risk Engine operations are safe but some 8 percent...

Carbon Monoxide
P Is poisoning due to the exhaust fumes resulting from carbon burning with insufficient oxygen to produce complete oxidation The resulting gas has one atom of carbon...

Night Flight (Discussion)
Use of checklist BR Preflight BR Chart reading BR Hazards and precautions BR Lighting systems of plane and airport BR...

On Flight Instructors
Almost anyone can learn to fly an airplane if exposed to the environment long enough and teaching someone properly is extremely hard work ...

Learning To Fly Young
You really don t need to go to a flying school to learn to fly The schools tend to be quite expensive I hope you live...

Where's The Problem?
When an instructor becomes upset over a student #39;s performance the student could well consider that the problem lies with the instructor An...

The E-6B
The E 6B was more created than invented by Phillip Dalton in the early 1930s It was initially called quot;The Dalton Dead reckoning...

Lost Procedures
Maintains original heading BR Identifies available landmarks BR Uses Navaids and contacts ATC for assistance BR Considers precautionary landing as an option ...

Viva la Difference
Where male and female students are similar: BR Individual differences of greater importance BR Learning differences more related...

Go-around
Power to full BR Hold heading and altitude BR Milk flaps or to 20 degrees according to IAS BR At Vy flaps up and climb...

Operation of Airplane Systems
P I FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; REFERENCES: C 61 21 AC61 23 FONT Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual I ...

Eights
P Eights combine the skills acquired from doing left and right turns about a point and S turns First find a with one leg giving ...

Fuel Electric accidents
1 Experience level of the pilot does not seem to matter in fuel related accidents BR 2 86 of aircraft...

Weather Accidents
1 Ice accidents: One per year in California Indiana is worst with almost 2 a year 4 of the 5 California accidents occurred between...

Restricted Areas
P You should determine if area is quot;hot quot; or in use Hazardous area usually due to military firing bombs explosive missile activity...

Mad As Hell And Taking It
P In flying we react in an emergency as we first learned to react When we show anger we react as we first learned to react Just...

Notes On Learning
Learning to fly was still the greatest adventure of life The inner process of learning to do so many different tasks in a context...

My Kind of Student
P I want a student who responds enjoys and pays attention I enjoy sharing my love of flying with someone I often share too...

Learning To Fly
P There is no single way to get a pilot license Getting it is faster and cheaper if training is done consistently with the same aircraft and...

Ground Review
All frequencies BR Sectional use BR FARs BR Aircraft manual one in aircraft required BR Aircraft papers logbooks ...

Special Use Airspace (SUA)
P Not on charts but often mentioned by VOR Tower broadcasts Locally by Livermore ATIS to warn of National Guard firing range near Danville San Ramon border...

Procedures and Techniques
Every phase of flying requires a series of procedures from pre flight to shut down With every procedure for what needs to be done...

Age as a Factor In Flying
P The average General Aviation pilot was 39 years of age in 1990 Pilots over 60 have 2 1 times more accidents than pilots in their 50...

Minimum Controllable
No maneuvers below 1500Ý BR Stall horn whimpering at all times BR Power added as required to hold altitude in 10 degree maximum banks BR ...

Vertigo
P Beware of false sensations Your inner ear will give you feelings that are overpowering With low time under the hood you must avoid attempting to...

Pre-takeoff Considerations
P B 1 Gross Weight and Center of Gravity B BR Gross weight is the empty weight plus useful load You must check...

Buying the Farm
In the `20s #39; barnstormers would travel the countryside to small cities and set up an quot;airplane ride quot; concession from some farmer #39;s field The pilot...

Radio Communications at an Uncontrolled Airport
Start listening well away from the airport Overfly above pattern altitude if you are uncertain of pattern or procedures Adhere to AIM recommended procedures Doing otherwise...

Growing Up As A Pilot
It takes more than time to grow and mature as a pilot Judgment cannot be measured just by time but by the number of successful ...

First Flight Preparations
P 1 Schedule aircraft instructor BR 2 Aircraft keys BR 3 Read Owner #39;s Manual BR 4 ...

My First Month As A Student Pilot
H4 Week 1 H4 P FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; Monday: Rain BR Tuesday: Rain BR ...

1998 Nall Report
li B VFR flight into IFR conditions is the leading source of fatalities Judgment failures are the cause BR ...

Spatial Disorientation
P Spatial disorientation is the No 1 cause of military fatal accidents Even the best pilot will become disoriented under the right conditions Effects on...

Statistics As of October 2001
ul li If you are rushed for time you are eleven times more likely to make a mistake than if you have ample...

Unusual Attitudes
P During the proficiency phase of hood work #39;unusual attitudes #39; should be practiced This means that you will put on the hood close his...

 Related Links
 
©2010 4VFR.COM, All Rights Reserved Powered by 4vfr.com