private pilot ground school Articles | Index    

Practice Illusions
2010-03-18

Practice Illusions

Autokinesis
On a dark night, fly toward a single light. Student is to stare only at the light. After a while the light will appear to move. Student should try to keep the light in one place. Aircraft control will be lost.

Updraft
Have student release yoke and close eyes. Make slow entry into steep bank. Student should tell you that you are in a climb. With eyes closed have student level off. Climbing sensation should cause student to dive aircraft. A real downdraft would cause climb reaction on controls.

Bank
A student is asked to fly with eyes closed. If a bank is entered so slowly that it does not affect the inner ear, any abrupt
correction or abrupt movement of the head will cause the pilot to re-enter the slight bank. Since the original bank did not affect the inner ear, the inner ear senses the level condition as being incorrect. Effort of pilot to correct these will only make them worse.

Spiral
A student is told to tip the head and close the eyes. Have student try to hold aircraft level. In a few seconds a gradual bank will occur. Over time, the bank angle will increase. There will be a gradual descent, an increase in airspeed, and an increase in bank angle. If the student pulls back the inner ear senses turning, spinning, or spiraling in a direction away from the bank. Ever increasing wrong control inputs will follow. Effort of pilot to correct will only make things worse. This is known as the graveyard spiral.

Cover the attitude indicator and have student close eyes and lower head to one side. Put aircraft into a shallow constant rate turn for enough time to allow senses to stabilize (360). Have student tilt head up quickly while opening eyes. Done properly student will feel tilted to one side Attempts to correct will be exaggerated in the wrong direction.

Nose up
Have the student enter slow flight eyes closed, without trim , and keep his eyes closed during acceleration and recovery. This causes a somatogravic illusion. The inner ear will sense a nose-up attitude. Deceleration reverses the effect.

Falling backwards
Have the student enter a climb with eyes closed. After 30 seconds give yoke an abrupt forward movement to slightly nose low attitude while telling student to open eyes. Student will have sense of falling backwards. Further forward pressure only increases the effect. This illusion also has a reverse illusion causing a sensation of falling forward.

Climb
An in flight illusion of climb acceleration by having student close eyes while you fly straight and level at slow flight. Increase speed while maintaining straight and level. Student will have illusion of climb until opened eyes prove otherwise.

Climb-dive
Student eyes closed. From straight and level roll into 45-degree bank for 90-degrees of turn. Student illusion will be of climb until eyes are opened. Do same maneuver but have student open eyes when nearly straight and level. Student illusion will be that aircraft is diving. Wing-level skids with eyes closed gives tilted sensation. Steep half Dutch-roll will cause student to sense bank in opposite direction.

Falling
Have student close eyes and move head forward and down in 20-degree stages. Enter coordinated 30+-degree bank. Have student turn head quickly and just as quickly bring head up. Time roll recovery to coincide with heads up. Illusion is falling to direction of roll.

Lowering Clouds:
At 2000' and under the hood have student note the time and after one minute descend 500', after two more minutes initiate another 500' descent, after 4 minutes descend still another 500', advise that after 8 minutes he will need to descend 500' more. You are looking for the student to make a decision to turn back or land.

Icing:
At level cruise and under the hood. Advise the student that after initial application of C.H. the power will be reduced 1-200 rpm every minute by the instructor. The student is to make a decision as how to proceed.
(Climb while able, descend to warm air, land.)

False horizon
Eyes closed under hood. On a dark and hazy night fly diagonally across a freeway where other lights are infrequent. Problem can be made worse by angled road lights or light patterns. Angle of lights could cause student to react with dangerous flight attitude. Pilot thinks horizon is out of level and attempts to align with illusion. In IFR conditions this will occur as you break out below a solid cloud ceiling.

Eyes Closed or under hood. On a dark and hazy night fly diagonally across a freeway where other lights are infrequent. Light pattern could pilot to react with dangerous flight attitude.

Elevator Illusion
Caused by quick upward acceleration as in updraft. Climbing sensation causes dive reaction. Could be caused by downdraft which results in climb reaction on controls.

Eyes closed. Make 90° turn with very slow bank entry from level into a 50° bank attitude. Student should have illusion of a climb. This same illusion can occur when caught in updraft. A sudden downdraft can give illusion of dive even though aircraft remains in level attitude.

Coriolis Illusion
Caused by abrupt head movement during a constant rate turn that has existed long enough to stabilize the inner ear. Gives sensation of motion on another axis. Attempts to correct

Eyes closed, head down and tilted (Cover AI). Enter extended constant rate turn until student no longer senses turn and bank. Have student make sudden head movement to instruments and open eyes. Student should sense rotation on another axis. May react to dangerous flight attitude.

Inversion Illusion
Caused by abrupt change from climb to level flight. The pilot senses that he is falling backwards. The instinctive response of lowering the nose only makes the sensation worse.

Eyes closed. Have pilot enter and trim for climb. When senses have had settled, have student push yoke forward to nose low attitude while opening eyes. The pilot should sense feeling of going over backwards.

Leans
Eyes closed. Enter a bank so slowly that it might not trigger the inner ear motion senses. Once into the bank, make an abrupt correction. The student will react to his mistaken senses then by re-entering the previously created bank and will remain there.

Lighting Illusions
Pilot mistakes roadways for runways. Give illusion of being quite close when lights are bright. High approach results. Low approach results when runway is approached over dark area. Don't use landing light until close to ground. The visual cues used for a normal night landing seem much the same as you get with a rapid increase in sink rate.

Comment

 
 External Links
 Recent articles
Engine Failure Accidents
ul li 22 of all accidents BR li 4 only partial failure BR li...

Nutrition
P Food when converted into glucose is the source of brain energy Glucose cannot be stored As blood sugar it requires constant renewal If glucose...

Emergency Equipment
ELT operation and ground activation BR Fuses breakers ...

Landings on Final
Over the fence Vref U U 5 knots or 1 2 Vso No exact POH figures BR B Soft field Approach...

Midair Accidents In 10 Years 1983-94
236 incidents BR ul li 132 accidents with 56 fatality rate BR li 3 air to air contacts per...

Prevention of taxiing problems
P Communicate BR Use airport diagram BR Get ATC help early BR When in doubt ...

Takeoffs
Alignment BR Rotation and liftoff BR Drift correction BR Airborne alignment check BR Clearing turns ...

1998 Nall Report
li B VFR flight into IFR conditions is the leading source of fatalities Judgment failures are the cause BR ...

Spin Awareness (Discussion)
Flight situations where spins may occur BR Recognize a spin and apply recovery technique BR Techniques specific to aircraft BR power off and flaps up...

Statistics As of October 2001
ul li If you are rushed for time you are eleven times more likely to make a mistake than if you have ample...

You and Illusions
P 1 Illusions can and do occur to everyone BR 2 Proper planning for strange airport conditions is essential BR 3 Weather and...

S-Turns
P The two downwind and two upwind turns of the S turn combine the four quadrants of the left and right turns about a point The technique...

Private Pilot Endorsements
An instructors endorsement indicates that he feels you have been instructed in and are competent to perform a given maneuver At that time Your logbook is a legal document...

Opinion
Where am I Where am I diverting to what direction is it Turn the airplane that direction How far away is it do I have enough...

Getting the ATIS
P One of my readers asked that I expand of the following statement: quot;The student will benefit from getting the ATIS with the engine running at all...

Advice to instructors
P Go down to lost and found and get your memory every time you have a senior moment P P As a...

Opinion On Trim
Trimming the airplane is something that comes with practice Like many others have said here the best way to learn is to ...

First Flight Preparations
P 1 Schedule aircraft instructor BR 2 Aircraft keys BR 3 Read Owner #39;s Manual BR 4 ...

Rectangular Patterns
P Under calm conditions almost any rectangle can be used If there is a wind the longest leg of the rectangles should be planned to be...

Why Accidents Happen
ul li 75 of accidents involve poor pilot judgment with reference to his ability knowledge or capability BR...

A Need to communicate
P What is the only question an instructor can never answer It is the unasked question Many concerns are unspoken The unspoken fear of every...

Runup
P Use a run up checklist Always face the wind Engine cooling is the reason We are not teaching a flying career made only...

1999 Nall Report
li B Landings are the source of most accidents but few injuries BR li For every mile traveled airplanes...

Instruction as I do it...
P I tend to be too intense in my instruction I want my students to succeed save money and learn quickly I love...

Holding Headings
A pilot not a student is expected to hold a heading The PTS allows a 10 degree or 20 degree range It...

What You Know, Gets In The Way of What You Don't Know
The learning law of #39;Primacy #39; is what makes developing proper habits first build the foundation for what you will do when under stress...

FAR Violations In Decending Order
ol li Careless or reckless operation BR li Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions BR li Failure to meet requirement...

Short Field Takeoffs
Rotate at Vx or as recommended BR Climb at Vx 10 or 5 knots to 50 BR Above 50 climb at Vy 10...

More on Mid-Airs
ul li Over half of the people involved in midair accidents were survivors BR li The probability of a...

Visualizing Your Training
P A student pilot or any other pilot for that matter can practice flying even while not in a plane A situation can be visualized ...

Keeping Anger in its Place
P What turns a student the wrong direction can be the sudden onset of a series of failures The myriad of emotional reactions; anxiety panic ...

Pitot Tube Inventor
The pitot tube was invented by Francais Pitot a French physicist and dentist born in 1695 His tube was first used to measure ...

Nice To Know Information
ul li Multiply horsepower by 09 to give gallons per hour consumption with safety factor BR li Most aircraft...

Teaching The FAA Way
I have never seen the 60 14 textbook I assume it is the revised Flight Instructor Handbook I once made a complete summary of ...

Operation of Airplane Systems
P I FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; REFERENCES: C 61 21 AC61 23 FONT Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual I ...

Associated Airport (Two Mile final into CCR 19R)
Clyde as it exists now is two small rows of homes along one side of a railroad spur track and Port Chicago Highway I was once...

Course Reversal
P The course reversal is a new addition to the Private Pilot Practical Test standards After the completion of a ground reference pattern in one direction it...

Before Takeoff Check
Emergency procedures review BR Door belts smoke engine BR POH distances and performance BR Departure plan review BR Clearing BR...

Radio Q-History
The Q codes were developed when communications wasn #39;t as good as now and Morse code was till the norm BR It...

Determining Performance and Limitations
P I REFERENCES: AC 61 21 AC 61 23 AC 61 84 Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual I P ...

Aircraft Preflight
P FAR 91 103 refers to weather airport data and POH information on aircraft performance FAR 91 7 b refers to inspection of aircraft condition...

Holding Patterns IFR
The shape of the holding pattern was based upon a requirement that older gyro instruments be allowed to settle down in a turn The...

Teaching Efficiency
I teach techniques that maximize safety economy of time and movement both for the pilot and the aircraft Many aspects of pre flight...

Spiral Descents
P This particular maneuver is the most difficult of the ground reference maneuvers It requires that the student descend over a selected point such as the...

My First Month As A Student Pilot
H4 Week 1 H4 P FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; Monday: Rain BR Tuesday: Rain BR ...

What's New
With so much history in the past I would like to take you into the future: BR I am most proud of my...

Are You Ready?
In the real world of life some things are done too soon Getting married having children picking fruit and going into your own business are...

Warning Areas
P Same as Restricted area but over international waters beyond 3 mile P P limit of our borders Contains hazards related...

Post Landing Checklist
When flaps C H mixture radio ...

Commitment to Flying
ol li You must be able to give priority to the time and energy required for learning to fly If you can #39;t...

 Related Links
 
©2010 4VFR.COM, All Rights Reserved Powered by 4vfr.com