private pilot ground school Articles | Index    

Pre-takeoff Considerations
2010-03-18

Pre-takeoff Considerations

1. Gross Weight and Center of Gravity
Gross weight is the empty weight plus useful load. You must check the POH to see if empty weight includes oil but it always includes unusable fuel. Useful load includes useable fuel, (oil?), passengers, and luggage.

Gross weight directly affects stall, takeoff speed, and maneuvering speeds. An improperly loaded aircraft will have undesirable flight qualities. If you have doubts or don't know, refer to the POH. The Va, maneuvering speed decreases as aircraft weight decreases.

2. Density Altitude
Density altitude combines the effect of pressure altitude and temperature. This affects engine power, propeller thrust, and the speed/distance required to create takeoff list.

3. Wind
A headwind will reduce takeoff roll. A tailwind will increase takeoff roll. Regardless of the wind you always fly indicated POH airspeeds. A 90-degree crosswind does not affect takeoff roll distance. Liftoff during takeoffs in gusty wind conditions should be done at Vso + 5.

5. "What if... Planning
See Takeoff Emergency

Pre-takeoff

Radio frequencies are changed and monitored before call up. The transponder is activated, gauges and instruments are scanned. Outside the aircraft is cleared. The EMERGENCY checklist is positioned. Practice the radio procedure for completeness, brevity, and smoothness in its entirety until it comes out in the correct order without pauses of punctuation. Then the frequency is checked and the call made.

Comment

 
 External Links
 Recent articles
Private Pilot Requirements
At least 17 read write and speak English 3rd class medical written test oral test flight test 61 103 BR Private...

Preflight & Cockpit Management
Inspects using checklist BR Passenger briefing on belts and emergency procedures from checklist on how to: BR ul li Tighten belts BR ...

Paperwork
Endorsements: BR ol li Your student license must be endorsed for each type of aircraft flown and for cross country flight BR ...

Downwind Takeoff
P demonstration BR At controlled airports the non assertive pilot just goes where he is told to go There are occasions where for convenience...

Stalls
P When we do stalls we are seeking recognition and prompt proper recovery You the student are being taught awareness How you become...

Effective Criticism Requirements
1 Student instructor awareness of what is being done wrong P P 2 Instructor analysis of why P ...

What's New
With so much history in the past I would like to take you into the future: BR I am most proud of my...

More on Mid-Airs
ul li Over half of the people involved in midair accidents were survivors BR li The probability of a...

Scanning (instructor notes)
P I suggest a scan process of having the student follow my finger as I point successively from HI to AI VSI to AI Altimeter to ...

Spatial Disorientation
P Spatial disorientation is the No 1 cause of military fatal accidents Even the best pilot will become disoriented under the right conditions Effects on...

1996 Statistics
46000 accidents 25 involved drugs or alcohol 20 were caused by mechanical problems 27 had terrain as a factor 2 had weight ...

Notes On Learning
Learning to fly was still the greatest adventure of life The inner process of learning to do so many different tasks in a context...

Run-up
Control check BR Engine check BR Instrument settings BR Uses checklist BR Airspeed distances review BR Emergency and departure review...

FAR 61.35(a)(f) and 61 105(a) Aeronautical knowledge
I certify that I have given name the ground instruction required by FAR 61 105 a 1 through 6 The new version lists thirteen...

Normal and Crosswind
Vy 10 5 knots ...

Self-Doubt is Normal
P Every so often the instructor finds a student who is going through a phase of flying that is very disturbing to the student A student may...

FAR 91 aircraft equipment required Day
VFR minimum equipment: airspeed altimeter compass tachometer fuel gauge oil temperature oil pressure gear indicator and manifold...

Imminent Stalls
P The major difference between this stall segment and those proceeding is the quot;depth quot; of the stall In this procedure regardless of the configuration the...

Slow Flight
No maneuvers below 1500 BR 1 2 Vs1 at 10 and 5 knots BR Altitude within 100 and airspeed within 10 and ...

About Students
ol li A student won #39;t learn from those they distrust BR li A student won #39;t improve unless told what...

Tight Grip VS Light Touch
P The left hand has only two useable digits while flying The forefinger is behind the yoke for back pressure and the thumb is for forward pressure...

Permanent Records
P Total time on airframe engine propeller since last overhaul of items required to be overhauled P P Status...

Cruise Control
P Learning to trim for level flight requires that you think in terms of setting as many constants as possible for a given flight situation First ...

Who is in charge?
B Low time instructors have most of the #39;Who #39;s in Charge #39; kind of difficulty This is because they have not...

Certificates and Documents
I FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; REFERENCES; FARs 43 61 and 91; AC 61 21 AC61 23; Pilot #39;s handbook and Flight Manual...

Aborted Takeoff
P once is enough BR It is all too common to have a seat slide back during initial takeoff acceleration For this reason the...

ATC Problems in Decending Order
ol li Non adherence to clearance FAR #39;s or published procedures BR li Erroneous penetration of airspace TCA #39;s...

Are You Ready?
In the real world of life some things are done too soon Getting married having children picking fruit and going into your own business are...

Learning To Fly
P There is no single way to get a pilot license Getting it is faster and cheaper if training is done consistently with the same aircraft and...

Descending Mechanical Failure Frequency
1 Clogged fuel system BR 2 Throttle mixture control BR 3 Oil line BR 4 Clogged...

Trim instruction
P The direction to move the trim and the proper instructional words to use are a common source of confusion Raising the trim wheel lowers the nose...

Fuel Electric accidents
1 Experience level of the pilot does not seem to matter in fuel related accidents BR 2 86 of aircraft...

Coffee
P Half of the American population is addicted to coffee 25 drink ten or more cups a day Quitting coffee is both difficult and painful...

1997 Nall Report
li An accident as a judgment failure BR li Pilots only spot one third of ATC traffic reported as significant BR...

Wifferdill
I #39;m told that quot;wolferdale quot; is an aviation perhaps military aviation term meaning a 270 turn Is this correct BR ...

The PTS
Everything about the Practical Test is a given If you have studied the PTS you know what is going to happen You may not know when or just how...

First Flight Preparations
P 1 Schedule aircraft instructor BR 2 Aircraft keys BR 3 Read Owner #39;s Manual BR 4 ...

Hood Lessons
P Since hood work is emotionally and mentally tiring it is best to limit each session Gradually extend the hood time until reaching 20 minute sessions ...

Taxiing
Brake check speed control BR Knows and obeys signs lines and lights BR Speed and yoke positions for wind BR ...

Smoking
P The smoking of tobacco is a form of self imposed physical and psychological stress that constitutes an immediate and on going threat to health and safety ...

Reaction and Anticipation
In searching for an appropriate place for this material I was surprised at how often the terms appeared the variety of context and...

Command Authority
FAR 91 3: quot;The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation ...

Obtaining Weather Information
I REFERENCES: AC 0 6 AC 00 45 AC 61 21 AC 61 23 AC 61 84 and AIM I BR...

Self-Doubt is Normal
B Every so often the instructor finds a student who is going through a phase of flying that is very disturbing to the student...

Takeoff Factors
P Many airports of the U S are long enough and wide enough for all G A aircraft Oddly most are not When the...

Pilot/Owner Maintenance
P Keeping an aircraft clean greatly improves both its appearance and its performance When you clean an aircraft you learn a great deal about its construction and...

Teaching 30 Years Ago
The following is a #39;Preliminary Talk Notes #39; that I made early on in my instructing career Going over them was of interest ...

Night Flight (Discussion)
Use of checklist BR Preflight BR Chart reading BR Hazards and precautions BR Lighting systems of plane and airport BR...

Trim Use
P Correct use of the trim requires that control pressures be applied to hold the desired flight attitude Then the trim is adjusted to relieve present control...

Service Difficulty Reports (SDRs)
P B SDRs B are a mechanics #146; report on maintenance problems These are collected by the FAA and aircraft manufacturer and passed on...

 Related Links
 
©2010 4VFR.COM, All Rights Reserved Powered by 4vfr.com