private pilot ground school Articles | Index    

Sources of Inadvertent Stalls Becoming Spins
2010-03-18

Sources of Inadvertent Stalls Becoming Spins 1. Inadequate rudder application in steep climbs. Climb power raises nose, decreases airspeed and increases P-factor.
2. False concept of air speed when on base due to a tailwind. Peripheral vision can sense the illusion and send it to the brain.
3. Letting nose pitch up and airspeed drop when applying power.
4. Having aircraft enter 'reverse command' area in pattern. A speed so slow and power so high that the only recourse is to lower the nose for flying speed.
5. Use of rudder to increase rate of turn from base to final. Keep ball centered during turns.
6. Distractions from primary purpose of aircraft control. This is now a required part of the flight test.
7. Trying to stretch a glide at a speed below best glide speed. If you don't know best glide, use best climb. It will be close.
8. Attempting to return to runway after engine failure. Practice at altitude and then add 50% fudge factor.

Stalls do not cause spins. A spin is initiated where the pilot includes or fails to include, rudder, aileron, or power individually or in combination during a stall. Auto rotation occurs from an asymmetrical stall and a sideslip. There is an abrupt loss of control when leaving the stall and entering the spin. The untrained pilot will always react instinctively and apply controls incorrectly thus aggravating the spin entry.

An incipient phase occurs when the foregoing stall is accompanied by uncoordinated yawing. The yaw induces a roll due to increased asymmetric lift on the wing opposite to the applied rudder. The aerodynamic differences from uncoordinated stalled flight causes the nose to drop. The autorotation to follow is quite varied as long as the dynamic and inertial forces are unbalanced. Airspeed will be changing but the faster the entry the longer it takes to stabilize the spin. By the second turn we may be in a developed (stabilized) spin. IAS will be pegged a few miles above 1G stall speed. Descent will vary but can reach 7500' fpm.

Know how to recognize the beginning of a spin. Quickly apply the proper control input. Get out of the incipient spin before it has a chance to develop. In a developed spin an aircraft prohibited for spins may be unrecoverable. To prevent this development from occurring the recognition and recovery from an incipient spin is a desirable training goal. The first turn of a spin causes the greatest loss of altitude, as much as 800' to 1000'. High-density altitude causes faster rate of spin and greater loss of altitude.

Recovery: Immediately, power off, opposite rudder, forward on yoke always in this sequence. If rudder is effective yoke forward may not be necessary. Otherwise, hold full application of controls until recovery. Check turn coordinator for direction if in doubt. The proper recovery from the incipient spin must be initiated at once or the yaw rate will become faster and the nose more toward the vertical.

Comment

 
 External Links
 Recent articles
Trim
P Most aircraft have single axis trim for the elevator Airliners have three axis trim for the elevator rudder and ailerons Trim is used to...

Paperwork
Endorsements: BR ol li Your student license must be endorsed for each type of aircraft flown and for cross country flight BR ...

A Training Program
P I make a practice of having prospective students come to my home office for a couple of hours to discuss flying I request that...

Bird Strikes
A serious problem costing over $150 million per year in aircraft damage and occasionally a life BR Bird strikes 1998 BR ...

Short Field Takeoffs
Rotate at Vx or as recommended BR Climb at Vx 10 or 5 knots to 50 BR Above 50 climb at Vy 10...

Planned Instruction
The military is a leading exponent of programmed instruction Under such a program every thing in the future is based upon the building blocks...

Go-around
Power to full BR Hold heading and altitude BR Milk flaps or to 20 degrees according to IAS BR At Vy flaps up and climb...

Service Difficulty Reports (SDRs)
P B SDRs B are a mechanics #146; report on maintenance problems These are collected by the FAA and aircraft manufacturer and passed on...

Additional Endorsements
High performance aircraft over 200 hp BR Complex aircraft Gear and flaps BR Tail wheel ...

The Competence of Incompetence
With the advent of a new study as to what constitutes competence there is a new fear by the self assured that they may be among ...

Statistics on General Aviation Accidents
ol li 51 of pilots were between 40 49 BR li 71 were private pilots BR ...

Emergency Landing
Best glide U U 10 knots ...

Hood Lessons
P Since hood work is emotionally and mentally tiring it is best to limit each session Gradually extend the hood time until reaching 20 minute sessions ...

Imminent Stalls
P The major difference between this stall segment and those proceeding is the quot;depth quot; of the stall In this procedure regardless of the configuration the...

Crosswind Takeoff
P The crosswind takeoff requires some timing skills that are not present in other landings On full power application the yoke is held full over into the...

Forced Landings
li If altitude permits glide range may be increased if propeller is stopped BR li Speed half way between best rate...

Pre-takeoff Considerations
P B 1 Gross Weight and Center of Gravity B BR Gross weight is the empty weight plus useful load You must check...

Radio Q-History
The Q codes were developed when communications wasn #39;t as good as now and Morse code was till the norm BR It...

1996 Statistics
46000 accidents 25 involved drugs or alcohol 20 were caused by mechanical problems 27 had terrain as a factor 2 had weight ...

Pilot/Owner Maintenance
P Keeping an aircraft clean greatly improves both its appearance and its performance When you clean an aircraft you learn a great deal about its construction and...

Phonetic Alphabet and Time Zones
In 1914 the U S Army adopted a phonetic alphabet but Spanish pronunciations created problem In 1927 a worldwide agreement of words and spelling...

Bits and Pieces
ul li Tolerance to lack of oxygen decreases proportionately with age BR li Patience...

Basic Maneuver Tolerances
Altitude U U 200 feet BR Heading U U 10 degrees BR Speed U ...

Ground Review
All frequencies BR Sectional use BR FARs BR Aircraft manual one in aircraft required BR Aircraft papers logbooks ...

Runup
P Use a run up checklist Always face the wind Engine cooling is the reason We are not teaching a flying career made only...

What My Instruction Is Not
B Flying is not the same as it was in WWI or WWII What worked then is unsafe now Accountability of the...

Takeoff Factors
P Many airports of the U S are long enough and wide enough for all G A aircraft Oddly most are not When the...

The Practical Test
Determines if applicant has had required instruction BR Determines if applicant can safely perform required tasks BR BR The practical test is a two...

Certificates and Documents
I FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; REFERENCES; FARs 43 61 and 91; AC 61 21 AC61 23; Pilot #39;s handbook and Flight Manual...

The Cockpit
P Using the tape recorder I go over all the instruments and controls I pay particular attention to the markings and divisions on the dials their...

VOR tracking
Tunes and idents station BR Holds altitude within 200 BR Locates position using radials BR Intercepts and tracks a radial BR Recognizes signal...

Taildraggers
19 of fleet are taildraggers BR 6 to 29 of landing accidents P P ...

Judgment of Limitations
P The ability of a student to plan a safe flight or flying activity is determined by his judgment of his limitations It is important that the...

Prohibited Areas
Don #146;t fly here ever White House Personal residence of President Area within 5 miles of president is prohibited airspace at any time Some prohibited...

Weather Accidents
1 Ice accidents: One per year in California Indiana is worst with almost 2 a year 4 of the 5 California accidents occurred between...

Takeoffs
Alignment BR Rotation and liftoff BR Drift correction BR Airborne alignment check BR Clearing turns ...

What You Know, Gets In The Way of What You Don't Know
The learning law of #39;Primacy #39; is what makes developing proper habits first build the foundation for what you will do when under stress...

Introduction To The Radio
I introduce the ATIS frequency 124 7 the alphabetical sequencing order of information during the day and how to use this information ...

Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR)
P Broadcast by ATC to warn air traffic to remain clear of areas such as open air affairs forest fires space launches crime scenes ...

Smoothness
Piloting skill is usually poorly defined unless the smoothness factor is included It is only by the smallest increments of control pressures that a skilled...

It's About Time
A sailing ship #39;s speed over a nautical a mile was historically measured by means of a knotted knots rope tied to a log...

Unusual Attitude Recoveries
Nose up Recover with pitch down add power level wings BR Nose down Recover with reduced power level wings pitch to level ...

Non-IFR Pilot
ul li 1 accident in 12 186 hours in IFR conditions BR li 1 accident in 94 819 hours...

Accident Precipitating Causes 1991
ul li Inadequate preflight and or planning BR li 1 4 of all accidents are caused by inadequate preflight BR ...

The Johnson Bar
One unlikely aircraft feature was derived from the steam engine The Johnson bar was used to control the amount of steam and hence the...

Descending Mechanical Failure Frequency
1 Clogged fuel system BR 2 Throttle mixture control BR 3 Oil line BR 4 Clogged...

Controlled Airport Radio
P B There are several essentials to good radio work B P P B The first essential is: ...

Retractables
1 One gear up landing occurs on average every day in the U S 5 of retractable accidents are gear up landings BR ...

1999 Nall Report
li B Landings are the source of most accidents but few injuries BR li For every mile traveled airplanes...

1989 - 1993 US Accidents
#133;Accident__________Deaths_ BR 1 Highway Accidents 228 000 BR 2 Murders ...

 Related Links
 
©2010 4VFR.COM, All Rights Reserved Powered by 4vfr.com