private pilot ground school Articles | Index    

Spiral Descents
2010-03-18

Spiral Descents

This particular maneuver is the most difficult of the ground reference maneuvers. It requires that the student descend over a selected point, such as the approach end of a runway, The angle of bank will be constantly changing to adapt to the wind. The airspeed must be constant. If the spiral is made too tight the banks become so steep that the student can't control the airspeed. Just pulling back to reduce airspeed has the effect of increasing the bank angle and tightening the spiral. This is an interesting maneuver to do in both left and right turns to show the student why the left turns are more desirable.

This maneuver and its requirements can best be demonstrated in an aircraft equipped with an ADF. Tune to a radio station of NDB in a non-congested area. Arrive at an altitude of several thousand feet over a radio station. Reduce power and initiate a descent at best glide speed. Turn the aircraft so that the ADF needle is pointed to the 270 bearing to the station. The spiral descent is made in left turns in such a manner as to keep the needle of the ADF on or near the 270 bearing. This gives a reference for the student and instructor to gauge the accuracy of the spiral over the point. Errors show up immediately.

The second descent should be done in right turns with the ADF on the 090 bearing. Climbs could be made in square patterns so as to demonstrate the movement of the ADF needle from the front 45 degree position to the rear 45 degree position at the corners of the square. This is a excellent learning technique for demonstrating the wind effect and the required flight corrections.

On completion of the above ground reference maneuvers the student is advised that he should expect and be prepared for 'emergencies' on any subsequent flight. The student should be advised that when soloed he will be allowed and expected to practice the ground reference maneuvers but never emergencies or off airport landings. The limits of the practice area, the practice altitudes and any radio procedures and assigned. We are now ready to put the skills learned in ground reference to work. About this time the student should realize that he has been practicing the skills needed for takeoff and landings from the very beginning.

Should you be flying an aircraft equipped with an ADF, it is rather interesting to perform the spiral about a radio station antenna. Tune the ADF to the radio station, switch to ADF and try to perform both
turns and spiral that keep the ADF needle on your wingtip. Not easy but 'do-able'.

Comment

 
 External Links
 Recent articles
Instruction use of MS Flight Simulator
I can MS Simulator be a helpful for my flight training i p At the end of WWII I was...

The Student As A Problem
Of great concern to the responsible instructor is the prospective pilot who is heavily occupied with concerns unrelated to flying Many students who are...

IFR Maneuvers
Straight and level control U U 200 feet of altitude U U 20 degrees of heading U ...

Growing Up As A Pilot
It takes more than time to grow and mature as a pilot Judgment cannot be measured just by time but by the number of successful ...

Short Field Takeoff
P The procedure requires performance that results in the shortest ground roll and the steepest angle of climb Two beginning options are available with little advantage going...

Diversion to Alternate
Accurate immediate turn to estimated heading finds ground speed ETA fuel conditions flies U U 200 feet U ...

About Accidents
Use of shoulder harnesses in all seats will reduce major injuries by 88 and fatalities by 20 Retro fit harness kits are...

Tie Down
P Given a choice of where to tie down always face into the wind A crosswind tie down means that the aircraft will be trying to ...

Non-IFR Pilot
ul li 1 accident in 12 186 hours in IFR conditions BR li 1 accident in 94 819 hours...

Trim History
The trim tab or servo trim was invented by Anton Flettner a German aeronautical engineer He started work in 1905 for the Zeppelin Company Died in...

Holding Patterns IFR
The shape of the holding pattern was based upon a requirement that older gyro instruments be allowed to settle down in a turn The...

Fatalities and Survival
ul li 90 of people involved in ditching accidents survive BR li Only 1 out of every 6 airplane accidents results in...

Abnormal Situation Training
B We do not want a first spin to be of the accidental kind We do not want a first encounter with adverse weather...

Steep Turns
Va or POH entry speed into 360 turn with bank of 10 5 degrees of 45 U U 100 feet ...

S-Turns
P The two downwind and two upwind turns of the S turn combine the four quadrants of the left and right turns about a point The technique...

Engine Logs
P B Overhaul B P P Does not change prior history Time is added as quot;since overhaul quot;...

Lost Procedures
Maintains original heading BR Identifies available landmarks BR Uses Navaids and contacts ATC for assistance BR Considers precautionary landing as an option ...

Associated Airport (Two Mile final into CCR 19R)
Clyde as it exists now is two small rows of homes along one side of a railroad spur track and Port Chicago Highway I was once...

Holding Headings
A pilot not a student is expected to hold a heading The PTS allows a 10 degree or 20 degree range It...

Cross-Country Planning
I REFERENCES: AC 61 21 AC 61 23 AC 61 84 Charts A FD AIM I BR ...

What to Expect from Fatigue
Reduced vigilance BR Increased temper excursions BR Reduced ability to concentrate BR Reduce awareness of deviations BR Increased rationalization of errors BR...

Who is in charge?
B Low time instructors have most of the #39;Who #39;s in Charge #39; kind of difficulty This is because they have not...

Systems Malfunction
Use of checklist BR Power loss BR Rough or hot engine BR Carburetor or induction icing BR No oil pressure BR ...

Trimming Cessnas (instructor notes)
P Cessna has engineered its trim so that certain changes in trim can be anticipated to correspond to flight path changes in different models For example ...

Fatigue and Flying
P Acute fatigue occurs when a long period passes with a lack of sleep Chronic fatigue occurs when several acute fatigue periods occur without adequate recovery time...

Coffee
Coffee causes dehydration 15 dehydration causes 40 decrease in flying coordination Water by volume X 1 5 is needed to replace ...

Radio Communications at an Uncontrolled Airport
Start listening well away from the airport Overfly above pattern altitude if you are uncertain of pattern or procedures Adhere to AIM recommended procedures Doing otherwise...

Teaching The FAA Way
I have never seen the 60 14 textbook I assume it is the revised Flight Instructor Handbook I once made a complete summary of ...

Shirt Tails
There has been a long tradition in aviation related to cutting off the shirt tails of newly soloed student pilots One story has it that the practice ...

Turns About a Point
P Some students do better if the point is selected at the intersection of to right angle roads This instead of a lone tree helps maintain ...

Takeoff Notes
P While easy to accomplish the takeoff is a relatively high risk flight operation because of the few options if things go wrong The best option...

Homebuilt Statistics
2 of planes are homebuilt #133;they have 10 of the accidents and are twice as likely to be totally destroyed P ...

Visualizing Your Training
P A student pilot or any other pilot for that matter can practice flying even while not in a plane A situation can be visualized ...

Military Training Routes (MTR)
P If you find that your flight will intersect an MTR route be sure to have P P the FSS run a...

CFI Hours
I took my intro flight a few days ago and when I asked my prospective CFI how many hours he had he said over 600 hrs...

Post-Landing
P Once on the ground Do not relax Hold the yoke back and properly positioned for taxi For any turns off the runway the yoke should...

Certificates and Documents
I FONT SIZE quot; 1 quot; REFERENCES; FARs 43 61 and 91; AC 61 21 AC61 23; Pilot #39;s handbook and Flight Manual...

Ear Block
P Caused when the Eustachian tube becomes blocked Earblock or sinus blockages can cause differential air pressures to exist between cavities of the skull and the exterior...

Smoking
1 A smoker of 1 and 1 2 packs a day will ingest into his lungs a radiation level of 8000 millirem just from cigarettes ...

A History of Measurement
Under the Roman Empire Rome became the center of the western world All roads led to Rome and all distances were measured from Rome The distances...

Inspections
P FAR 43 11 a b Type description date total time signature certificate type and number; approval or disapproval for return ...

Instructional Constants
A number of constants have been recommended Constants while not the only way to fly simplify the complexities of maneuvering an...

Eights
P Eights combine the skills acquired from doing left and right turns about a point and S turns First find a with one leg giving ...

Hundred Octane Aviation Fuel
Interestingly of all machines only airplanes have their own fuel BR BR In the late 1930s light weight and compact engines were being developed...

Command Authority
FAR 91 3: quot;The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation ...

Performance Sheet ASEL
Compute weight and balance with gross takeoff weight___________ Center of gravity location ________ BR Gross landing weight __________ Center of gravity location _________ BR Shift weight...

Sources of Inadvertent Stalls Becoming Spins
B 1 Inadequate rudder application in steep climbs Climb power raises nose decreases airspeed and increases P factor BR 2 False...

Crosswind Landings
P I References: AC 61 21 Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual I P P Recommended speeds or 1 3 Vso...

Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
Course within 3 nautical miles BR Altitude U U 200 BR Arrival within 5 minutes BR Heading within 15 degrees...

Learning To Fly
P There is no single way to get a pilot license Getting it is faster and cheaper if training is done consistently with the same aircraft and...

 Related Links
 
©2010 4VFR.COM, All Rights Reserved Powered by 4vfr.com